Symbol Stones near Establishments from Battledykes to Strageath
Home & Contents
The Pictish Symbol / Mithras Connection
People, Places & Times
The "Open-Air" Mithraeum
Carvings on the Stones
Mithraic Symbols Identified & Decoded
Changes in Beliefs
Case Studies
The Start Point of Pictish-Mithraism
The Overall Pictish-Mithraism Discovery
Appendix A - Drawn Designs
Appendices - B to F & Annexes
Biblio Author Copyright

Symbol Stones near Establishments from Battledykes to Strageath

Locations of Class 1 Symbol Stones have been added to the previous Gask Ridge and Glen Blockers map. The table below shows three groupings of Stones in the vicinity of specific establishments.


Class 1 Stones with legible / discernible Symbols are at the following locations in the above area:–


Vicinity of:

Class 1 Stones at:-

Battledykes, Inverquharity & Cardean

Aberlemno, Aberlemno (Flemington), Bruceton, Dunnichen, Kinblethmont

Cargill & Bertha

Cargill, Collace, Keillor, Linlathen, Longforgan, Strathmartine


Abdie, Strathmiglo, Westland (Falkland)


In summary the number of Pictish-Mithraism Symbols (as identified in “Mithraic Symbols”) in the vicinity of:  Strageath = 7; Cargill & Bertha = 12; Battledykes, Inverquharity & Cardean = 15.

Details are in Appendix D.

There are more Roman Army Establishments in this geography than in the Muiryfold to Kintore one – north of the Mounth –but relatively with only 40% of the number of Symbols on Class 1 Stones.


The numbers of Symbol Objects (as defined in “Carvings on the Stones”) in this area has been analysed versus the total population number of each Object. A benchmark has been derived as the sum of the Objects in this geography over the total number of the Objects and is shown as a percentage. By comparing against the benchmark it has been possible to identify which Symbols have significantly higher or lower instances. Appendix D has all the data and highlights. For example, there are 5 instances of the Comb compared with a total population of 40 – this means that this Object has a higher than average presence.


The V-Rod and Crescent has a lower than benchmark incidence but the Z-Rod and Double Disc is significantly over the benchmark. The implication could be that additional symbolism was offered by the latter by, for example, conveying the principle of the travel of the soul using the Z rather than the V. Overall, though, the number of Symbols is low so interpretation is difficult.


There is evidence of Severan occupation of Roman Establishments in this geography at Carpow and Battledykes with more of the Agricolan period. This is very relevant to determining when the Stones may have been carved with Mithraic Symbols – the Agricolan period would have been early for Roman Mithraism (started near the end of the 1st century CE) and the nearest Mithraea were not built nearby until Hadrian’s Wall was constructed.


There is a low correlation between a Roman presence and the early Symbol Stones for this geography.

Builders & Worshippers
Time Lines
Locations of Roman Establishments in Pictland
Symbol Stones near Establishments from Muiryfold to Kintore
What the "stayers" created
Home & ContentsThe Pictish Symbol / Mithras ConnectionPeople, Places & TimesThe "Open-Air" MithraeumCarvings on the StonesMithraic Symbols Identified & DecodedChanges in BeliefsCase StudiesThe Start Point of Pictish-MithraismThe Overall Pictish-Mithraism DiscoveryAppendix A - Drawn DesignsAppendices - B to F & AnnexesBiblio Author Copyright