Biblio Author Copyright
Home & Contents
The Pictish Symbol / Mithras Connection
People, Places & Times
The "Open-Air" Mithraeum
Carvings on the Stones
Mithraic Symbols Identified & Decoded
Changes in Beliefs
Case Studies
The Start Point of Pictish-Mithraism
The Overall Pictish-Mithraism Discovery
Appendix A - Drawn Designs
Appendices - B to F & Annexes
Biblio Author Copyright



 The following texts, and their constituent references, have been a learning resource and helped provoke thoughts culminating in the overall discovery of Pictish-Mithraism®. The author attests, however, that the interpretations and rationales leading up to them are wholly his own and have not been plagiarised.


Origins of Pictish Symbolism – James Carnegie Southesk, 1893

The Early Christian Monuments of Scotland – Allen & Anderson, 1903

The Origin Centre of the Pictish Symbol Stones (Proc FSA(Scot)) – Isabel Henderson, 1957-58

Scotland Before History – Stuart Piggott, 1982

Pictish & Norse Finds from the Brough of Birsay – C L Curle, 1982

The date and origin of Pictish symbols (Proc Soc Antiq Scot) – L Laing & J Laing, 1984

The Pictish Guide – Elizabeth Sutherland, 1997

Picts and Ancient Britons – Paul Dunbavin – 1998

A Wee Guide to the Picts – Duncan Jones, 1998

The Picts and their Symbols – W A Cummins, 1999

The Picts and the Scots – L & J Laing, 2004

Warlords and Holy Men – Alfred P Smyth – 2005

Roman Scotland – David Breeze - 2006

Beyond the edge of the empire – Caledonians, Picts & Romans - Fraser Hunter, 2007

The Picts – Tim Clarkson, 2008

The Pictish Symbol Stones of Scotland – Iain Fraser for RCHAMS, 2008

From Caledonia to Pictland; Scotland to 795 – James E Fraser, 2009



The Mysteries of Mithra – Franz Cumont, 1903

Mithras, the Secret God – M J Vermaseren, 1963

The Roman Art Treasures from the Temple of Mithras – J M C Toynbee, 1986

The Origins of the Mithraic Mysteries – David Ulansey, 1989

The Roman Cult of Mithras – Manfred Clauss - 2000

The Mysteries of Mithras – Payam Nabarz, 2005

The Religion of the Mithras Cult in the Roman Empire – Roger Beck, 2006

Gods with Thunderbolts – Guy de la Bédoyère, 2007

From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire -  Pierre Briant

Useful web sites:


  About the Author

 In the early 1950s the author saw the Knocknagael Boar Stone, then a few miles from his home in Inverness – the beginning of the life-long “intrigue” of Symbol Stones. Work enabled much travel around Pictland then holidays in Moray have provided a great base for looking at even more Stones – where they stand and in museums. Frequent visits to museums in Edinburgh and London to research Scottish and Middle Eastern history and religions resulted in several ideas falling into place.

A background in engineering encouraged logical analysis and in management encouraged synthesis – helping to make the connections between the Symbols on the Stones and the Mysteries of Mithras. The author’s career in UK then global telecoms was paralleled by professional activities such as chairman of Council of the Institution of Incorporated Engineers in the 1980s, membership of the Council of the Engineering Council in the 1990s, chairman of Council of the Institution of Engineering & Technology (IET) from 2006 to 2008 and membership of many committees.

The author, an Invernessian living in Kent, is currently a Fellowship and Professional Registration Assessor for the IET. He is a Fellow of the Institution of Engineering & Technology and a Fellow of the Chartered Management Institute. His research and this discovery are, however, as an “independent scholar”.

Family members have played a large part in this pursuit. Of special mention are my father (Jim) who maybe knew more about the Stones than he let on and who encouraged family and roots investigations, my sister (Melody) as listener and initial proof reader, my elder daughter (Tara) who has asked searching questions, my younger daughter (Melody) who seems taken by the symbols and what they might mean (walking with some every day as tattoos) and my wife (Annie) who has supported me over many years of research and disappearing to the study!





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Home & ContentsThe Pictish Symbol / Mithras ConnectionPeople, Places & TimesThe "Open-Air" MithraeumCarvings on the StonesMithraic Symbols Identified & DecodedChanges in BeliefsCase StudiesThe Start Point of Pictish-MithraismThe Overall Pictish-Mithraism DiscoveryAppendix A - Drawn DesignsAppendices - B to F & AnnexesBiblio Author Copyright